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APX-01 Road Casement Surveys by Limited Marking

Version 1 - 13/03/2018

This guide is intended as general information only. If you are uncertain of your rights or interests, please seek professional legal advice. Landgate staff are not able to give legal advice or to draft your documents. Please read our Terms of Use above.

1. Overview

This survey method applies to roads where there is a reduced need for direct identification of the road boundary and consequently does not justify the cost of full boundary marking. The Land Surveyors Licensing Board have approved the following two sets of Guidelines for such surveys, both of which are available from the Board website at or by request from the Secretary of the Board (telephone 9273 7401):

  1. Survey Practice Guidelines for Surveys of Roads Through Open Country Using Limited Marking Under General Regulation 26A, and
  2. Survey Practice Guidelines for Surveys of Roads Through State Forest Using Limited Marking Under General regulation 26A

These surveys provide road casement definition by the use of Geodetic control and its relationship to existing and proposed cadastral boundaries. Principally the method is limited to low land value areas throughout the State and outside isolated Townsite boundaries that have traditional, fully marked cadastral surveys.

The majority of these road projects are issued by Main Roads Western Australia. Approval must be gained from the Inspector of Plans and Surveys before using these Guidelines to survey other road projects. Alternatively, for surveys through Crown Land only, and where these Guidelines don’t exactly suit the situation it is possible to use Regulation 21(1) of the Land Administration Regulations 1998, in which case approval must first be obtained from an Authorised Land Officer.

The following Plan specifications have been developed in consultation with Main Roads Western Australia and are to be used for all Road Casement surveys utilising these limited marking techniques.

2. Plan Specifications

  1. The Plan shall be drawn on standard Landgate Plan forms. Plan numbers are to be obtained from Landgate prior to drafting and each Plan is to be numbered and cross-referenced to adjoining Plans. It is preferred that Plans do not comprise more than 4 sheets and where possible, Plans cover sections of road that affect whole parcels.
  2. The Plan shall be drafted at a scale of 1:5000 (preferred), 1:10000, or at a suitable scale depending on the complexity of the job. Enlargements may be drawn - not to scale.
  3. Except where these specifications indicate otherwise all boundaries, lines, text, symbols, feature styles and colours shall be in accordance with Landgate standards and specifications as described in this Manual.
  4. As Road Casement boundary dimensions are accurately determined by survey (SSM traverse) and can be accurately fixed on the ground in future, all these boundaries on survey Plans are to be symbolised by an unbroken line.
  5. The road casement may be positioned on the Plan form in up to 4 sections. Match lines, if shown, must be at 90º and shall be shown at the ends of each straight section. Road casement widths are to be shown where the boundaries are parallel.
  6. Sufficient detail shall be shown on the plan to allow accurate definition of the road casement.
  7. All surveyed and unsurveyed intersecting Land Act, LAA, TLA and Live Mining Act boundaries must be shown. These shall include a distance and azimuth along each intersecting boundary to the nearest corner (drawn not-to-scale if necessary). Connections should also be shown to boundaries and any horizontal control points in close proximity to, but not intersecting the casement.
  8. Ensure that:
    1. Distances on unsurveyed boundaries are prefixed ‘abt’ (about)
    2. Unsurveyed pastoral lease boundaries are cast on cardinal bearings (this may also apply    to gazetted Townsite boundaries)
    3. Original surveyed values take precedence over digital data which is at variance to that      survey.
  9. All distances shown on the plan shall be ground distances and all bearings shall be mid azimuths, rounded to the nearest second.
  10. The road casement shall be defined by distance and angle from SSMs.
  11. All standard survey marks (SSMs) and their unique alphanumeric identifiers must be shown on the Plan but control traverse distances and azimuths are not shown. However, angle from control traverse to casement connection shall be shown together with the annotation on the control traverse eg. to SSM York 133.
  12. Eccentric geodetic observing stations should be represented by an SSM symbol (even if only marked by a spike) and annotated with the actual name of the observing station, which should have a ‘T’ designation. (See Geodetic Circular No. 14/93).
  13. The secant distance and angle (if not parallel) should be shown at each casement bend.
  14. Areas of roads ex parcels of land that cover more than one Plan shall be shown thus on each Plan – ‘Total Area of Road ex P/L = 100.1 ha (Includes CPs 17500-17506)’.


    Areas of roads ex pastoral lease/reserve are now to be shown as above (Previously these were shown as ‘ex locations’ that comprised the pastoral lease/reserve).

    Areas of road ex UCL are required for Native Title statistics (Non extinguishment of rights for the life of the road is conducted using Sections 24KA and 238 of the Native Title Act).

  15. Pastoral lease names-numbers-Crown leases, reserves, parcel identifiers, UCL, live Mining Tenements, protected roads, water features etc are to be shown as appropriate.
  16. Local Government boundaries and Land District boundaries shall be shown on Plans.
  17. Improvements of local significance to the road (eg fences, prominent bores, yards, dams, ruins etc) may be depicted as located by survey, provided that such details are clear and do not clutter the Plan.
  18. Defined material, water bore and maintenance areas should be shown, where practicable, on the Plan or the reference indicated to a separate Plan if defined by survey.
  19. Care should be taken with the Plan (heading and graphic) to clarify whether the subject is a road or road widening and whether road closures are also involved:
    1. The headings for each plan of a series may be different and must be determined by the surveyor
    2. Road closures to be determined in consultation with Main Roads WA.

    In the case of a widening of an unsurveyed dedicated road, the existing road shall be shown with broken line boundaries. Calculated dimensions are not required.

    The area of any unsurveyed, dedicated road within the road casement is to be excluded from final area calculations.

  20. The headings for Plans of Road Casement surveys are to include the tenure created together with a generic description of the road:
    1. When creating new roads only:



    b. When creating new road with widenings:



    c. When creating (ii) above with road closures:




2.1. Widening of Unsurveyed Dedicated Road

  1. The first sheet of the plan shows a Lot which comprises the existing dedicated unsurveyed road and the new widening (This Lot is to be used for the dedication of the road).
  2. The subsequent sheets show the old road and the new widening with lot numbers for each different tenure of land (areas are to be calculated and the Lot numbers are placed textually into SmartPlan). These are deemed to be insets and the Lots are to be used for taking purposes.
  3. The heading on the front sheet would read as follows:




    INSET LOTS 786-789

    A Former Tenure Table is required as per SPP-10 Plan Practices.

  4. If the survey results of the control traverse and the detail survey are recorded digitally and the calculations and Plan drafting are carried out by the same survey organisation in one continuous computer process (or in exceptional other cases), the Plan may be accepted without a field book for that part of the survey, subject to the following conditions:
  5. Additional to the standard Plan Certificate, the surveyor shall certify on the Plan as follows:
    1. “ ________________________ hereby certify that the control traverse, by me or under my personal supervision from measurements made by radiations and boundary dimensions shown on this Plan were calculated me or under my personal supervision and recorded on a digital data recorder and that the survey complies with the guidelines pertaining to surveys under Regulation 26A of the Licensed Surveyors (Guidance of Surveyors) Regulations 1961.

    __________Date: _______________________________Licensed Surveyor”


Variation to the above certification should be made as to the particular circumstances of the survey. eg. Control traverse and radiations may not be calculated so that fact is not to be shown in the certification, similarly the measurements may not be recorded on a digital data recorder, they may be derived using a GPS receiver.

b. Basic information which would normally be shown in a field book should be recorded on the Plan

The annotation ‘(Reg 26A)’ is to be shown in the APPROVED panel of the Plan Title block. See plan examples 70 and 71.

3. General

The purpose of these plans is to provide a vehicle for:

  1. Native Title considerations (if applicable).
  2. The clearing of land tenure constraints, ie. resumptions (takings), excisions, closures, surrender of surface rights etc.
  3. Dedication of new parcels of road.
  4. Field books are to be lodged for all cadastral connections
  5. All survey search to be provided on Plan lodgement at Landgate. (Will be returned if requested).
  6. It is the responsibility of the surveyor to ensure that, where digital cadastral data has been used in the compilation of the plan, unsurveyed boundaries in the SCDB (especially Townsite boundaries) have been coordinated by spatial upgrade. Where only digitised information is available, gazetted values of unsurveyed reserves and Townsite boundaries must be adopted, in particular azimuth values.


    There may be numerous gazettals for a Townsite boundary, and Digitised data may have been derived from the Public Plan and not necessarily from accurately determined geographical positions.

    If conflict exists between the upgraded positions and gazetted information, the coordinates are to be recomputed. If this does not resolve the conflict, a cadastral connection is required.

  7. In many pastoral areas the coordinates in the SCDB for surveyed boundaries are still derived from digitising small scale cadastral maps. They need upgrading to ‘survey’ accuracy before calculating intersections with a new casement. This is achieved by surveying a direct connection from the control survey, assigning survey dimensions to the pastoral boundaries, and running a least squares adjustment.
  8. If an original survey in these remote areas cannot be re-established because of wholesale obliteration of all evidence over a wide area, SCDB coordinates can be used to position the boundary for intersection purposes.
    1. Field books should confirm field search for evidence,
    2. The SCDB coordinates must be validated, and upgraded if necessary, with the intention of maximum positional accuracy, and
    3. The calculated distance to un-located points are shown to two (2) decimal places and suffixed ‘cal’.
  9. Landgate can verify an unsurveyed coordinate when a surveyor has doubts as to its validity.


Manager, Spatial Cadastral Data Base

Survey Networks

Phone: (08) 9273 7176

These Guidelines are compiled for remote low land value environments where alienation is never expected. If they are used to define boundaries between different government authorities in forested land or other land of significant value, then the plan must carry the statement:

“This Plan is not to be used for alienation purposes’

4. Digital Data Presentation

Digital data is required for limited marking Plans and is to be presented to DLI in Cadastral Survey Data (CSD) format.

5. File to Include

  • Surround polygon.
  • One polygon per pastoral lease, location, lot etc.
  • Coordinates in MGA94 or State project grid.
  • Ground distances to be shown as per Plan.
  • All traverse lines from SSMs to Road Casement, including all angles and distances, to be shown.